1. This Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) has been developed on a basis of outcomes from the Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) and the consultations with different stakeholders for the Livelihood Enhancement and association of the Poor (LEAP) project for Cambodia including the initial pilot stage of six communes in Siem Reap province. The Cambodian Government and the World Bank has agreed to implement the safeguard requirements under the project in accordance with the relevant Cambodian laws and regulations and the World Bank environmental and social safeguard policies in the design and implementation of this project, including OP 4.12, "Involuntary Resettlement". For this project, design and scheduling considerations make it impossible to determine the extent of resettlement planning requirements at appraisal.
2. This framework will be applied to all investments to be financed by the World Bank (the Bank) for technical and/or financial support from the LEAP project for Cambodia that involve land acquisition, compensation, restriction to resources access and land donations as defined by the World Bank’s safeguard polices on Involuntary Resettlement (OP 4.12).
3. The purpose of this Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) is to guide the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) in managing the land and asset ownership risks related to small-scale infrastructure and livelihood investments under the Cambodia Livelihood Enhancement and Association of the Poor (LEAP) project. As these investments will be demand-driven in nature, the exact type and location of each sub-project will not be known until they are identified during the course of project implementation.
4. A Social Assessment conducted in 2010 to inform the design of the LEAP project in Siem Reap informs the RPF. Following the conclusion of a pilot phase from 2010 – 2012, a new expanded phase is planned to begin in 2017, which would include Siem Reap and Phnom Penh. As such as, an Urban Poor Community Needs Assessment was conducted in 2015 to unique context and challenges faced in poor communities in Phnom Penh. This Assessment has also provided valuable information for the RPF in understanding the infrastructure and livelihood needs of target communities, including community consultations conducted as part of project preparation, implementation of the pilot, the period between the close of the pilot and preparation of the current phase (See Annex 5).
5. The overall responsibilities for implementing the project, including the safeguards, lies at the Ministry of Interior (MoI), which is the executing agency for the project. MoI will be also responsible for implementing Component 3. The Siem Reap Sub-Management Team 1 (SMT1 SRP) will implement component 1, and the Phnom Penh Capital Sub-Management Team 2 (SM2 PPC) for day-to-day management will implement Component 2. LEAP have established respective sub-management team 1 and 2, namely SMT1 and SMT2 to be responsible for implementing Components 1 and 2 respectively. The RPF will used as much as possible the Commune-Sangkat Fund (CSF) Project Implementation Manual to align with existing government procedures
6. Additionally, In Cambodia, the mandate for carrying out land acquisition for public investments has been delegated to the Inter-Ministerial Resettlement Committee (IRC) of MEF. The Resettlement Plans under the project (if any) will need to be approved by the IRC before submission to the World Bank for review and approval. To achieve the objectives of this Framework, the operational manual for the project which will be prepared will reflect the policy on land acquisition and, the following roles and responsibilities of the IRC. MoI, Siem Reap and Phnom Penh respective teams. The IRC is a collective entity chaired by the representative of the MEF and composed of representatives from different line ministries such as the MoH (Project Executing Agency). Ministry of Land Management and Urban Planning. The IRC has since been the decision making body on resettlement issues and involved in government infrastructure projects. The MEF is the permanent Chair of the IRC and represents it for all development projects. The IRC shall assume the function of a quasi-regulatory body, ensuring that funds for resettlement are spent properly and that the RP is carried out as intended.
7. The RPF establishes principles and procedures to be followed if subsequent stages of project design or implementation are to cause land acquisition. In such instances, the RPF requires the preparation of a Resettlement Plan (RP) by the Government for World Bank review and approval. The RP ensures that any such potential impacts are minimized, and that any persons affected by such impacts are provided opportunity, through provision of compensation or other forms of assistance, to improve or at least restore their incomes and living standards.
8. This document is considered a living document and could be modified and changed in line with the changing situation or scope of the activities. Close consultation with the World Bank and clearance of the revised RPF will be necessary.