Livelihood Enhancement and Association of the Poor (LEAP - P153591)
Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)
January 9, 2017
1. As most of the project activities for the Livelihood Enhancement & Association of the Poor (LEAP project are to be determined during project implementation based on community demand, it is not possible to develop a firm Plan as to how to address the environmental and social risks that may arise. As such, two safeguards instruments have been prepared; the Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF or Framework) and the Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF)1 in accordance with the World Bank Safeguard Policies. The ESMF lays out the environment and social risk assessment requirements for activities financed, the Project actions to mitigate risks and potential negative impacts on local people and the environment, and the institutional arrangements to execute the ESMF during project implementation.
2. The Project is assessed as EA category “B” provided that LEAP’s investment activities will only cause minor, temporary and self-contained environmental and social risks that can be managed through this ESMF and the RPF. In the unlikely case that the results of project screening or assessment determine that an activity to be supported under the project is of high risk, the Ministry of Interior (MOI) will contact the World Bank to determine whether such an activity is eligible based upon the significance of potential impacts, risks and the capacity of the implementing agencies to manage such risks.
3. This ESMF is informed by environmental and social analysis conducted under the LEAP pilot phase which was implemented from 2010-2012. In preparation for the pilot project and eventual project expansion, an Environmental Assessment and a Social Assessment were prepared covering the target areas in Siem Reap Province. An Environmental Management Framework (EMF) was developed and applied during the pilot phase and the lessons of implementation are incorporated into this ESMF. As Phnom Penh has been added as a target project area subsequent to the pilot phase, an Urban Poor Community Needs Assessment was conducted in selected communities in Phnom Penh in 2015 to better understand the needs of target communities and the context for addressing poverty in the urban setting. This Needs Assessment has further informed the design of this ESMF including the RPF.
4. While the pilot phase did not include small-scale community infrastructure investments, this activity type has been added to the proposed new phase of the project. As such, this ESMF draws heavily upon the time-tested, social and environmental risk management procedures included in the Commune/Sangkat Fund Project Implementation Manual (C/S PIM). The Commune/Sangkat Fund has been providing grants to every Commune/Sangkat in the country since 2003 for activities such as road improvements, water supply, irrigation, and other activities that are consistent with the activities to be financed under LEAP. The last update of the C/S PIM was undertaken in 2009, so this is the version that will be utilized for implementation of community infrastructure activities under LEAP. In addition to the C/S PIM, the ESMF and the RPF includes measures for identifying and managing the environmental and social risks of other project-financed activities and those that was not included in the Commune Sangkat PIM, in particular, small-scale livelihood investments by individual households, self-help groups and producer groups. MOI will be responsible for ensuring that the provisions of the ESMF are followed and complied with during implementation.
5. This ESMF will be implemented through a LEAP Project Implementation Manual (PIM) that will specify how the World Bank safeguards policies will be applied to meet its requirements.
6. This ESMF document is considered a living document and could be modified and revised in line with the changing type of the project activities. When situations make it appropriate that the ESMF be revised, the World Bank will be consulted prior to its revision and any changes or revisions to the ESMF shall require World Bank approval.